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双语回顾 | 世贸组织成员关心的那些中国经贸领域,王受文作了11点回应!

日期: 2018-09-17
浏览次数: 23

7月13日,中国代表团团长、商务部副部长兼国际贸易谈判副代表王受文在世贸组织对中国第七次贸易政策审议第二次会议上进行发言,商务微新闻今天带你一览双语版,了解本次会议上王受文都回应和澄清了哪些关键问题。


中国代表团团长、商务部王受文副部长

兼国际贸易谈判副代表

在世贸组织对中国第七次贸易政策审议

第二次会议上的发言

2018年7月13日 10:00 日内瓦


Statement by H.E. Mr. Wang Shouwen

Head of the Chinese Delegation

Vice Minister of Commerce of China and

Deputy China International Trade Representative

at the Second Session of the Seventh WTO TPR of China

Geneva, 13 July 2018


主席先生、讨论引导人、各位大使、各位代表:

Mr. Chair Ambassador Laourou,

Discussant Ambassador Chambovey,

Ambassadors, Delegates,


在这两天的审议中,主席先生、讨论引导人和70个成员代表就上次审议以来中国的经济贸易政策既提出了许多建设性的意见,也有一些我们不能接受的意见。我向你们保证,我和我的同事将认真予以对待。为此,我代表中国代表团向各位表示感谢!

Over the past couple of days, Mr. Chair, the Discussant, as well as Ambassadors and representatives of 70 Members offered observations on China’s economic and trade policies during the period under this review. Most of them are constructive, but some are completely unacceptable. I can assure you that my colleagues and I will take all the comments seriously. On behalf of the Chinese delegation, I would like to thank you all for your input. 


我还要感谢大家对中国履行加入世贸组织承诺、推动更高水平对外开放,坚定支持多边贸易体制给予的肯定。

I would also like to express my appreciation to Members’ acknowledgement of China’s fulfillment of its WTO obligations and commitments, efforts in advancing higher-level opening-up and firm support for the multilateral trading system. 


关于部分成员提到的“行胜于言”,中国有句古话叫“言必行、行必果”。2018年4月习近平主席博鳌讲话距今还不到3个月,中国有关的开放举措已相继落地。6月28日,完成修订外商投资负面清单工作,推出了涉及金融、汽车制造等领域的22项开放措施。7月1日起,降低汽车整车、零部件以及1449个税号的日用消费品的进口关税。7月9日,中国政府又推出了15项推进贸易自由化便利化的具体举措。

Some Member mentioned 行胜于言 “Actions speak louder than words”. That reminds me of an old saying in China, “No sooner said than done”.Just three months after President Xi Jinping made his speech at the Boao Forum for Asia, the relevant opening-up measures that he referred to have been implemented in succession. 

June 28th saw the release of the 2018 revised negative list for foreign investment, introducing 22 opening-up measures in such areas as financial services and automobile manufacturing. Since July 1st, import duties on automobiles and car parts among nearly 1,500 tariff lines of consumer goods have been lowered. And on July 9th, the government of China unveiled another 15 specific measures for promoting trade liberalization and facilitation. 


成员在发言中提出的问题和关注,大部分都已在我的主旨发言及我们对书面问题单的答复中回答。现在,我想就成员主要关心的领域进行回应和澄清。

The majority of questions and issues raised by members in their interventions have already been responded to in my opening statement the day before and China’s replies to written questions. Let me take this opportunity to approach and clarify the priority areas identified by members.


一、关于政府的作用

1. Regarding the role of the government.

中国共产党第十八届三中全会提出,要“处理好政府和市场的关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用”。

The 3rd Plenum of the 18th CPC Central Committee held in 2013 spell out the relationship between the government and the market, letting the market play the decisive role in resource allocation and the government play its role better.


近年来,市场的作用在中国发挥得很好。现在利率已经市场化,汇率市场化形成机制不断完善。外商投资准入限制措施减少近三分之二,负面清单之外的领域基本实行备案管理。中央政府定价的产品和服务仅剩下7种,主要涉及容易形成自然垄断的行业,以及重要公用事业和公益性服务等。

In recent years, the role of market has been brought into full play in China. The interest rate is already market-based, and the market-oriented exchange rate formation mechanism has been constantly improved. Restrictions on the access of foreign investors have been cut by nearly two thirds. And investment in areas outside the negative list is by and large administrated through the filing for record system. The number of products and services subject to central government-set prices is only 7 now, mainly those prone to natural monopoly, as well as important public utilities and services relating to public benefit. [These are natural gas, certain water supply (for water conservancy), electricity, special drugs and blood, certain transportation, postal and professional services.]


另一方面,政府的作用也发挥得很好。我们大力加强知识产权保护,防止形成垄断,不断改善营商环境。比如,在中国的外国投资者无需担心枪支暴力gun violence。

On the other hand, the government has also played its role better. We have vigorously strengthened IPR protection, minimized monopoly, and continuously improved the business environment. For example, no foreign investor in China has to worry falling victim of gun violence.


正是由于很好地发挥了市场和政府的作用,中国才实现了较快发展,为贸易伙伴创造了机遇。当然我们并不是完美无缺的,我们将继续优化政府和市场的作用。

It is due to both the decisive role of the market and the better role of the government that China has achieved rapid development, and provided opportunities for its trading partners. The current situation is not perfect of course, but China will continue enabling its government and its market optimally play their respective role.


二、关于“中国制造2025”

2. Regarding Made in China 2025


根据UNCTAD的研究,全球有100多个国家有配套产业政策,60%是针对制造业,25%与新一轮产业革命相关。美国曾发布“美国制造业复兴法案(US Manufacturing Enhancement Act of 2010)” 、“先进制造业伙伴计划(Advanced Manufacturing Partnership 2012)” 、“先进制造业国家战略(A NATIONAL STRATEGIC PLAN FOR ADVANCED MANUFACTURING 2012)”等多个战略计划或政策法案。德国有 “德国工业4.0”计划,法国有“新工业(New Industrial France 2013)” 计划。“中国制造2025”与这些计划性质一样,其实施是公开、透明、开放和非歧视的。“中国制造2025”既适用于中国企业,也适用于外资企业,某些方面甚至还适用于外国企业。实际上,包括美国公司在内的多家外国企业已参与“中国制造2025”的实施项目。

According to UNCTAD studies, over 100 countries in the world have supportive industrial policies. 60% of them are for manufacturing, and 25% are related to the new round of industrial revolution. 

The US once released many strategic programs or policy acts, Manufacturing Enhancement Act of 2010, Advanced Manufacturing Partnership 2012, and National Strategic Plan for Advanced Manufacturing 2012, just to name a few. Germany has a plan entitled Industry 4.0. And France has New Industrial France 2013.

Made in China 2025 is essentially the same in nature as these plans and programs. It is implemented in an open, transparent and non-discriminatory manner. It applies to both Chinese enterprises and FIEs in China, and in certain aspects, even applies to foreign companies. In fact, many foreign enterprises including American ones have already participated in projects implemented under Made in China 2025.


三、关于产能过剩

3. Regarding overcapacity


产能过剩是一种全球性经济现象,既是周期性问题,也是结构性问题。上世纪70年代的美国和80年代的日本都出现过粗钢产能过剩问题。

Overcapacity is a global economic issue of both cyclical and structural nature. The US in 1970s and Japan in 1980s both encountered with overcapacity in crude steel.


2008年国际金融危机引起世界经济衰退,全球市场需求下降。为解救危机,中国采取了经济刺激计划,扩大内需、扩大固定资产投资,为世界走出金融危机作出重大贡献,但也造成产能增长。

The 2008 international financial crisis resulted in world economic recession and decline in global market demand. To deal with the crisis, China adopted an economic stimulus plan to boost domestic demand and expand fixed-assets investment, thus contributing to rescuing the world from the crisis. As a side effect, China’s responsible actions also led to capacity increase. 


中国现在在负责任地采取化解国内产能的措施,是唯一设定量化指标并且付诸实施的国家。2016年和2017年共削减粗钢产能1.2万吨。2017年世界钢协总干事巴松表示,世界钢业感受到了中国在去产能做出的巨大贡献。

Taking a responsible position again, China has been making tremendous efforts to address domestic overcapacity. China is the only country that has set a quantitative indicator and acted to accomplish it. For 2016 and 2017, China cut its capacity of crude steel by 120 million tons in total. Director General Edwin Basson of World Steel Association said that the global steel industry has felt the significant contributions made by China to capacity reduction.


中国钢铁产能占全球一半,但不用担心会冲击你们的产业,因为中国钢铁出口只占到产量的 9.5%。而有些国家出口占到产量的65%,39%,47%。削减过剩产能需要集体应对,中国愿意和WTO成员一起应对产能过剩问题。

Although China’s steel and iron production accounts for  half of the global total, no worry that it would affect your industry. Because China’s steel and iron export only takes up 9.5% of its total production, while some other countries export 65%, 39% and 47% of their production respectively today. Addressing overcapacity needs collective actions. China stands ready to join hands with other countries to tackle this problem together.


四、关于国有企业

4. Regarding SOEs


世贸组织许多成员都有国有企业。美国有房利美、房地美等国企。加拿大、法国等很多发达国家也都有国企。

SOEs can be found in many WTO members. The United States has Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Canada, France and a number of developed members also have SOEs. 


中国的国企与私营企业、外资企业等其他企业一样,都是独立市场主体,在市场中平等竞争。如果因为国有企业从中国政府获得特别补贴,导致其出口产品对成员的国内产业造成影响,有关成员可以像对待私营和外资企业一样,按照SCM协定规则开展反补贴调查。

SOEs in China, just like private companies, FIEs and other enterprises of this country, are independent market players that compete on a level playing field. If a member believes that certain SOEs get special subsidies from the Chinese government, and their exports affected that member’s domestic industry, the member could just conduct countervailing investigations according to the rules of SCM Agreement, just like what they normally do with private companies and FIEs.


五、关于知识产权

5. Regarding IPR


加强知识产权保护是中国创新发展所必须的,既是为了中国企业的利益,也符合外国企业的利益。

Strengthening IPR protection is the inherent demand of China’s innovation and development. It serves the interests of Chinese enterprises, and also caters to the interests of foreign companies. 


中国没有任何法律规定强制要求外国企业必须转让它的技术给中国合作伙伴。中外企业的技术合作完全是基于自愿原则实施的契约行为。关于所谓“盗窃知识产权”问题,中国政府已建立了相对完整的知识产权法律保护体系,推进设立知识产权法院和专门审判机构,不断发挥知识产权司法保护主导作用。

China has no law that mandates the transfer of technologies by foreign enterprises to their Chinese cooperation partners. The technical cooperation between Chinese and foreign companies are absolutely contractual behavior based on voluntary business deals. As for the groundless accusation of IPR theft, I wish to emphasize the Chinese government has established a relatively complete legal system for IPR protection, set up IPR courts and dedicated tribunals. The dominant role of judicial protection of IPR has been continuously cemented in China. And we will keep improving upon enforcement.


六、关于网络安全和数据流动

6. Regarding cyber security and data flow


中国实施《网络安全法》,对数据流动实施管理,不是要阻止数据跨境流动,更不是要限制国际贸易,而是为了保障网络安全和数据依法有序自由流动,保护公民法人的合法权益,维护国家安全和社会公共利益。作为发展中国家,我们不得不通过这些措施防止发生类似剑桥分析数据泄露的事件,防止外部势力对中国国内局势的干涉,影响稳定和安全。

By implementing its Cyber Security Law and regulating data flow, China does not intend to impede cross-border data flow, let alone restricting international trade. Rather, the aim is to ensure cyber security and orderly flow of data within the applicable legal framework, protect the legitimate rights and interests of its citizens and legal persons, and safeguard national security and social public interests.

As a developing member, China has to take these measures to prevent incidents like data leakage by Cambridge Analytica, and prevent interference into China’s domestic affairs by external powers that should jeopardize its stability and security.


七、关于透明度

7.Regarding transparency


中国与广大发展中成员一样,在透明度义务履行方面仍然存在能力限制。但我们一直为履行协定规定的通报义务持续不断作出努力。上次审议前,我们提交了加入世贸组织后首份地方补贴通报。此次审议,我们提交了2015-2016年中央和地方补贴通报,共计190项补贴政策,涉及企业研发、环保节能、渔业等领域,并首次实现了省级行政区域全覆盖。

Like the vast number of developing members, China still faces capacity constraint when it comes to implementing the transparency obligations. However, China has all along been sparing no efforts in honoring its notification obligations under the WTO agreements. We submitted the first notification on subsidies at sub-central government level before the last TPR. Prior to this TPR, we handed in the 2015-2016 notification for both central and sub-central subsidies programs. The notification encompasses 190 items in such fields as R&D of enterprises, environment protection and energy conservation, as well as fisheries. And for the first time, programs in all provincial-level administrative regions in China are reflected.


农业国内支持通报上,中方已完成技术准备工作。但因为农产品相关政策已诉诸争端解决,中方被迫推迟提交通报。

In terms of the domestic support notification, China has basically completed technical preparations. However, in view of the ongoing disputes, submission has to be postponed. 


八、关于《政府采购协定》

8. Regarding GPA


中方一直致力于尽快加入《政府采购协定》(GPA),习近平主席在博鳌亚洲论坛上宣布,中国要加快加入世界贸易组织GPA进程,这是中国政府一贯立场的重申。中国政府新的出价将尽快提交WTO。

On top of China’s persistent endeavor to join the GPA at an earlier date, President Xi Jinping announced at the Boao Forum for Asia in April this year that China will pace up the process. That is a reiteration of China’s consistent position by our top leader. A revised offer will be submitted to the WTO as soon as possible.


中国政府已为加入GPA已经做出了巨大努力。但中国加入GPA的进程不仅仅取决于中方的努力,而且在很大程度上也取决于参加方的立场和预期。希望参加方及其他各方采取灵活务实的态度。

China has already made considerable efforts to join the GPA. However, its accession process depends on not only China's own efforts, but to a large extent, the positions and expectations of the parties to the GPA. We hope that all the parties could adopt a flexible and pragmatic attitude as well.


九、关于对发展中国家和最不发达国家的支持

9. Regarding support for developing members and LDCs


中国是世界最大发展中国家的国际地位没有变。目前中国人均GDP不到9000美元,全球排名71。中国的发展还不平衡不充分,还有3000万农村贫困人口,养老、医疗等社会保障体系的发展程度和发达国家还有很大差距,要中国承担发达国家的义务是不现实的。

China’s status as the world’s largest developing country has not changed. At present, per capita GDP in China is below USD9000, ranking the 71st globally. Due to imbalanced and incomplete development, more than 30 million rural people still live in poverty. China lags far behind developed countries in pension, healthcare and other social security areas. It is therefore unrealistic to require China undertake responsibilities the same as developed members.


但是中方愿意承担与自身发展水平和能力相称的国际责任,向发展中国家特别是最不发达国家提供力所能及的支持,包括积极扩大进口,努力促进投资,坚定支持发展中成员在多边贸易体制中的特殊和差别待遇。对于今年11月即将举办的首届中国国际进口博览会,我们将为参展发展中国家和企业提供支持和便利,并对最不发达国家免除参展费用。奉行国家主导的重商主义贸易政策的国家,是绝对不会这么做的。

However, China is ready to shoulder the international responsibilities commensurate with its development level and capacities. We are willing to provide support to developing countries, especially LDCs within our capabilities. We have actively expanded import, promoted investment and firmly supported the implementation of S&D entitled to developing members under the multilateral trading system. As regards the first China International Import Expo to be held in the coming November, we will provide assistance and convenience to exhibitors from developing countries and exempt LDCs from their participating fees. A country pursuing state-led mercantilist trade policies would never do that.


十、关于“一带一路”倡议与世贸组织

10. Regarding the Belt and Road Initiative and the WTO


“一带一路”合作倡议的目标是深化各国务实合作,实现共同繁荣。“一带一路”合作倡议坚持共商共建共享原则,向所有志同道合的朋友开放。这些与世贸组织的目标是一致的,与世贸组织的规则也是相容的。

The Belt and Road Initiative aims at deepening cooperation among countries in a pragmatic manner for shared prosperity. Adhering to the principle of achieving shared benefits through consultation and collaboration, it is open to all like-minded friends. These are in line with the objectives of the WTO, and compatible with its rules.


特别需要强调的是,“一带一路”倡议在贸易畅通合作方面明确提出,要维护以世贸组织为核心的多边贸易体制,推动贸易投资自由化和便利化,反对保护主义,以符合多边规则的方式实施。

It’s worth mentioning that the Belt and Road Initiative explicitly proposed, in terms of unimpeded trade, that the multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core be upheld, trade and investment liberalization and facilitation be advanced, and protectionism be strongly opposed. The initiative will be implemented in a manner consistent with the multilateral trading rules.


十一、关于自贸区建设

11. Regarding FTAs


中国在坚定维护多边贸易体制主渠道地位的同时,积极推动自由贸易区建设。最近,中国又新增了3个自贸协定谈判伙伴,即摩尔多瓦、毛里求斯、巴拿马。中国将继续坚定推进面向全球的高标准自由贸易区网络,期待与自贸伙伴一起取得积极进展,实现共同发展的目标。

While firmly safeguarding the multilateral trading system as the main channel, China has been vigorously promoting free trade arrangements with its trading partners. Our recent FTA negotiating partners include Moldova, Mauritius and Panama. China will remain committed to building a network of high-standard free trade areas which is open to the world. We look forward to making progress jointly with our FTA partners and attaining the objective of common development.


主席、讨论引导人、各位大使和代表,我对审议会议上大家提出的主要评论的回应就到这里。谢谢大家。

Mr. Chair, the Discussant, Ambassadors and Delegates,

This concludes my responses to the key issues identified in the first session of this TPR. I thank you all for attention.


来源:商务部世界贸易组织司


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